Anomalies are shimmering, semi-transparent distortions in space which can be found using the long range scanner mode (purple ping). They have a gravitational field around them meaning the ship boosters or travel mode is required to enter them. Upon a player ship touching the anomaly, it will be transported to a random anomaly in a different sector. Note that this anomaly is most likely not linked to the same anomaly where you came from so that traveling back through the anomaly is not possible.